How do people with chronic renal failure live ? If the disease is not at the terminal stage, then patients undergo conservative treatment. The stage is determined by the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). At the terminal 5th stage, it is below 15 ml / min / 1.73 m² - dialysis or kidney transplantation is already required here. Chronic renal failure is considered from the 3rd to 5th stages - GFR is below 60 ml / min / 1.73 m². On any of them, the patient must lead a special lifestyle: follow a diet and a number of recommendations prescribed by a doctor.
In chronic insufficiency, the kidneys cease to perform their normal function - the excretion of metabolic products in the urine. As a result, they accumulate in the human body. First of all, it is urea and creatinine. It is by the level of the latter that kidney function is assessed. High creatinine is a violation of kidney function. Therefore, with chronic renal failure, it is important to regularly take tests to check the level of this breakdown product. In order for it not to rise, it is necessary to follow a number of rules.
It increases creatinine levels. This is due to the fact that this substance is the end product of the creatine-phosphate reaction in the muscles during their energy metabolism, work and injury. Hence, high physical activity is a high level of creatinine, which the kidneys, which are already not working, cannot cope with.
In chronic renal failure, protein is limited in the diet: with SFC below 50 ml / min - up to 30-40 g / day, below 20 ml / min - up to 20-24 g / day. This is necessary to reduce the burden on the kidneys. At the same time, with the onset of dialysis, the amount of protein is increased to 1.1-1.5 g/kg/day. This is because many important components are washed out during dialysis, and protein does not affect the state of the kidneys so much.
Instead of protein in the diet, there should be a sufficient amount of carbohydrates and fats. The basis of the diet is complex carbohydrates that do not increase glucose and are slowly absorbed, and unsaturated fats that are good for the heart and blood vessels.
In a diet for chronic renal failure, caloric content is important. It should be high - about 3000 kcal to replenish all vitamins and minerals. The diet is prescribed individually, so 3000 kcal is an approximate number.
Since the kidneys do not work well, they do not remove potassium, and the work of the heart is disrupted from its excess. Therefore, the amount of potassium supplied with food must be controlled. It is found in potatoes and other vegetables. To reduce the amount of potassium, these vegetables should be cut and soaked for 6-10 hours before cooking, and the water should be changed as often as possible.
It is also necessary to limit the intake of phosphorus. In chronic renal failure, it can lead to damage to the bones and heart. Phosphorus is found in protein foods. There is also a vegetable, but phosphorus is absorbed worse from it. Also, its amount decreases with the heat treatment of food. When choosing products, you should pay attention to those that have a low phosphorus-protein index - below 20 mg / g.
Another important rule of nutrition in chronic renal failure is to monitor the drinking regimen. With severe edema, you have to reduce the amount of water you drink. In this case, you need to weigh yourself daily at the same time, after emptying the bladder and intestines. If the weight has increased sharply, then fluid retention has occurred. With water restrictions, you can absorb a piece of ice, and rinsing, chewing gum, lollipops, or a slice of lemon will help with dry mouth.
Blood pressure must be controlled, it should be at a level not higher than 130/80, the maximum indicators are 140/90. To do this, on a diet with chronic renal failure, the amount of salt per day is limited to 2-3 g per day. With the development of severe hypertension , it is necessary to switch to a salt-free diet.
To reduce the amount of salt per day, you can follow these tips: